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Chromosome 2 Fusion Continued

     When discussing evolution, two common objections are often encountered. One, that all the evidences presented are only examples of microevolution, is clearly refuted here.  This is evidence of humans having a common ancestor with apes 6 - 7 mya and evolving from an ape ancester, and it confirms the fossil record and its data that the split occurred at that time also.  Second, the most difficult part of evolution to accept for many persons is human evolution (remember even Wallace, the co-discoverer of natural selection).  Given the many people who closely hold conservative religious beliefs, this evidence for human evolution must be especially difficult to accept.  But there is no conspiracy - the evidence is there and it crosses various cultures and belief systems.  This kind of evidence has lead prominent Christian researchers like Francis Collins and Kenneth Miller to plead with their fellow Christians (there are YouTube videos of presentations by these two theist scientists supporting these conclusions) to accept that macroevolution is true and extol believers to find a way to incorporate modern scientific findings into their faith, or as one biblical scholar stated, Christianity is doomed to become a cult.  Of course, Muslims and conservative Jews are also faced with the same dilemma.  These findings don't depend on assumptions, presuppositions, or what worldview glasses you are wearing.


Lastly, here is another short video that reviews the same points using a slightly different presentation.


























For Part 2 of the above, Click here.




The exact fusion point has been identified and is shown below. Notice that the repeating intact TTAGGGs (red) end abruptly at the fusion site and switch over to the complementary DNA strand as intact CCCTAA (blue).  As expected, many are corrupted after millions of years.























## - There are other evidences that the order of the genes points to common ancesty. See for example  "Signature in the Synteny where Venema notes that "...should God have wished to avoid the appearance of common ancestry between humans and chimpanzees, there seem to have been many gene orders and chromosome structures available to Him to use for either species." And a study in the Nov. 2010 Science via ScienceNews notes that in the tunicate Oikopleura dioica its gene order is completely scrambled compared to others demonstrating that gene order is not a important as thought.  Similar gene orders do indeed point to common ancestry.


In July, 2012 an exchange between a Discovery Institute staff member and Carl Zimmer took place on Face Book regarding human chromosome 2 fusion (the DI does not allow comments on its web page). This four part series summarized on Zimmer's web site is highly instructive in examining parts of the DI's book, "Science & Human Origins" by Gauger, et al. (2012).  As a bonus, not only are the assertions of the DI authors examined but also their motivated reasoning; they are caught quote mining. This book is an attempt to answer in part some of the DNA findings for macroevolution that are outlined in this web site, including DNA findings regarding Adam & Eve claims and HC 2 fusion. The reader is highly encouraged to read the creationist discussions of HC 2 fusion, such as the article by Bergman and Tomkins (Chromosome 2 Fusion 1)  and then move on to Zimmer's short four part summary. (The Mystery of the Missing Chromosome) I'll let you be the judge regarding where the truth lies when looking at HC 2 fusion, the scholarship of the two sides, and how strong the motivated reasoning is with the creationists.




Comparison of the Human and Great Ape Chromosomes as Evidence for Common Ancestry.    Click here. 


Researchers Discover Largest 'Gene Deserts'; Find New Clues to Ancestral Chromosome Fusion.  Click here.


Chromosome Fusion: Chance or Design? (A very good discussion - follow the thread)

Click here.


Origin of human chromosome 2: an ancestral telomere-telomere fusion.  Ijdo et. al

Click here.  


Understanding Genetics. Ask a Geneticist. Stanford School of Medicine. M. Rodriguez.

Click here.   


Human Chromosome 2 is a fusion of two ancestral chromosomes. MacAndrew, Alec.

Click here.


Power point presentations (Ind. U.): HC 2, pseudogenes.  Link


Fusion discussed: bonobos and other apes Link


Evolution of African ape subtelomeric DNA and HC 2 fusion Link




Biomed 5/10:  updated 2/13

Ch 2 fusion site